A three-dimensional printed photopolymer resin implant for orbital rehabilitation for evisceration
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the biocompatibility of three-dimensional (3D) printed orbital spheres for evisceration. Materials: A total of 10 consecutive patients (eight females and two males; mean age, 46.8 ± 14.2 years) underwent evisceration of blind painful eyes. 3D spherical implants produced by a rapid prototype machine were used to restore orbital volume. The implants were produced from a commercially available photocurable resin (Fullcure®). Systemic toxicity was evaluated by comparing serum biochemical measurements (creatine phosphokinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein) before and at 12 months after surgery. Local toxicity was assessed by the evaluation of signs of socket inflammation at the first postoperative month. Changes in implant size were determined by computed tomography scans at 2 and 12 months after surgery. Results: The postoperative evaluations were uneventful. The biochemical evaluation showed no significant changes after surgery. None of the patients presented signs of orbital implant inflammation, infection, exposure, or extrusion. Computed tomography scan evaluations revealed no changes in implant size. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first phase-1 clinical study to certify the biocompatibility of the Fullcure resin for orbital implants in humans. The 3D printing technology permits fast and accurate production of implants for this purpose.