Acanthocephalan parasites of the flounder species Paralichthys isosceles, Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile from Brazil
Abstract Flounders are commercially and economically important fish. A total of 120 specimens of flounders (60 Paralichthys isosceles, 30 Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile) were collected off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fish were measured, necropsied and filleted, and then had their organs investigated for acanthocephalans. Taxonomic identification of the parasites was based on morphological, morphometric and genetic characters. Paralichthys isosceles and P. patagonicus were parasitized by juveniles of Serrasentis sagittifer, Bolbosoma turbinella, Corynosoma australe and C. cetaceum; Xystreurys rasile was parasitized by C. australe. Genetic characterization confirmed the identification of specimens of Bolbosoma turbinella and Corynosoma australe, as demonstrated by phylogenetic analyses using both ITS and cox1 molecular targets. Parasite indices of prevalence, intensity, mean intensity, abundance, mean abundance, and range of infection, as well as infection site, were evaluated for each parasite species. This is the first report of S. sagittifer parasitizing P. isosceles and P. patagonicus, and B. turbinella parasitizing P. patagonicus.