Acute Chagas disease in the state of Pará, Amazon Region: is it increasing?

Acute Chagas disease (ACD) has a distinct epidemiological profile in the Amazon Region, with cases and outbreaks of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being possibly related to the ingestion of contaminated food. Data on ACD in the state of Pará retrieved from 2000 to 2016 from the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) were evaluated. During this period, 2,030 of the 16,807 reported cases were confirmed, with a higher incidence between the months of August and December, thus characterising a seasonal pattern of acute infection, and coinciding with the higher production of “açaí”, one fruit likely involved in the oral transmission of the disease. Evaluation of the absolute numbers of confirmed ACD cases secondary to oral infection suggests that infection through this route increased during the 2010-2016 period, differing from what was recorded in terms of vectorial or other infection routes. These findings point to the need of intensifying strategies to prevent or substantially reduce oral transmission.