Acute prostatitis after prostate biopsy under ciprofloxacin prophylaxis with or without ornidazole and pre-biopsy enema: analysis of 3.479 prostate biopsy cases
ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of cases of NIH category I acute prostatitis developed after transrectal prostate biopsy and clarifiy the risk factors and preventive factors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3.479 cases of transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies performed with different prophylactic antibiotherapy regimens at two different institutions between January 2011 and February 2016. The patients of Group I have received ciprofl oxacin (n=1.523, 500mg twice daily) and the patients of Group II have received ciprofl oxacin plus ornidazole (n=1.956, 500mg twice daily) and cleansing enema combination as prophylactic antibiotherapy. The incidence, clinical features and other related microbiological and clinical data, were evaluated. Results: Mean age was 62.38±7.30 (47-75), and the mean prostate volume was 43.17±15.20 (21-100) mL. Of the 3.479 patients, 39 (1.1%) developed acute prostatitis after the prostate biopsy procedure. Of the 39 cases of acute prostatitis, 28/3.042 occurred after the first biopsy and 11/437 occurred after repeat biopsy (p=0.038). In Group I, 22 of 1.523 (1.4%) patients developed acute prostatitis. In Group II, 17 of 1.959 (0.8%) patients developed acute prostatitis. There was no statistical difference between the two groups according to acute prostatitis rates (X2=2.56, P=0.11). Further, hypertension or DM were not related to the development of acute prostatitis (P=0.76, X2=0.096 and P=0.83, X2=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Repeat biopsy seems to increase the risk of acute prostatitis, while the use of antibiotics effective for anaerobic pathogens seems not to be essential yet.