Acute toxicity of nitrate in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles at low salinity levels
ABSTRACT: Different technologies have been developed to improve the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei in low salinity, mainly in super-intensive systems like recirculation and BFT (Biofloc Technology System) systems. However, there is an accumulation of toxic nitrogenous compounds to the shrimps such as nitrate, that at high concentrations and depending on the salinity of the culture water can be lethal. Acute toxicity tests allow to analyze the relationship between the compound and other abiotic or biotic variables. The aim of this research was to determine the acute toxicity and safety level of nitrate (N-NO3 -) for juveniles of L. vannamei at salinities of 5 and 10g.L-1. For salinity of 5g.L-1, a control and 5 treatments were tested, with nitrate concentrations of 100, 500, 1500, 2500 and 3500mg.L-1.For salinity of 10mg.L-1, a 4500mg.L-1nitrate concentration was added. Juveniles were exposed to concentrations during 24, 48, 72, 96 hours in static system. The Mean Lethal Concentration (LCC50) was calculated and the recommended safety level for L. vannamei cultivation is 60.05 and 127.61mg.L-1 of nitrate for salinities 5 and 10g.L-1, respectively.