Adherence to Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Treatment: case study in a reference outpatient clinic, Niterói (RJ), Brazil

Abstract Background Adherence to treatment and high cure rates result from the interaction health services, patients, society and public management. Objective To determine the factors associated with adherence to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment from the perspective of patients, professionals and managers. Method Case study using quali-quantitative approach, different sources of evidence, descriptive statistics and content analysis based on the categories: adherence, access, embracement, bonding and accountability. Results The free supply of medicines and exams in the clinic, flexibility of scheduling, active search for no-show patients and relationship with the health team were described as important factors for adherence. Difficult access to social benefits and absence of some professionals of health team were unfavorable factors for adherence. Knowledge of the current illness and its treatment associated with the patient's will were important aspects to overcome the barriers when conducting treatment. Conclusion Despite the existence of unfavorable factors, the actions of embracement, bonding and accountability were sufficient to promote adherence in this group. It is recommended to further promote access to welfare benefits, new forms of communication and collaboration with other public sectors and society to confront the MDR-TB.