Apogeu e colapso dos grandes cacicados no sul da Argentina: estratégias de resistência e iminência de combate (1861-1872)
ABSTRACT In the second half of the nineteenth century, the social, politic and economic relationships between indigenous peoples and creoles in the south of Argentina were characterized by periods of closeness and estrangement, peace and conflict, resistance and combat. The zenith of Chiefdom rule in the Pampas and Patagonia took place between 1861 and 1872. Owners of the land, they controlled much of the commerce of the area and defended their sovereignties. They knew who were their representatives and were well informed on their dilemmas, debates, interests and strategies. During and after the Paraguayan War, they changed their social and political organization in order to establish new levels of resistance against the State: they joined forces and attacked before they were attacked. This paper discusses the dilemmas of that time and the interests of the native peoples of Argentina at the height of their power.