Association between estimated glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion in urine of African descendants in Brazil: a population-based study

ABSTRACT Introduction: Excessive salt intake is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: To evaluate the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and sodium excretion in urine samples of Brazilians of African ancestry. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,211 Brazilians of African ancestry living in Alcântara City, Maranhão, Brazil. Demographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were analyzed. The urinary excretion of sodium was estimated using the Kawasaki equation. Calculations of eGFR were based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Multivariate linear-regression model was used to identify the relationship between sodium excretion and eGFR. Results: Mean age was 37.5±11.7 years and 52.8% were women. Mean urinary excretion of sodium was 204.6±15.3 mmol/day and eGFR was 111.8±15.3 mL/min/1.73m2. According to multivariate linear regression, GFR was independently correlated with sodium excretion (β=0.11; p<0.001), age (β=-0.67; p<0.001), female sex (β=-0.20; p<0.001), and body mass index (BMI; β=-0.09; p<0.001). Conclusions: The present study showed that age, female sex, BMI, and correlated negatively with eGFR. Sodium excretion was the only variable that showed a positive correlation with eGFR, indicating that high levels of urinary sodium excretion may contribute to hyperfiltration with potentially harmful consequences.