Association between systemic activity ındex and dry eye severity in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome
ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the severity of ocular and systemic findings among patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Methods: The study followed a prospective controlled design and comprised two groups; the test group included 58 eyes of 58 patients newly diagnosed with primary Sjögren syndrome with poor dry eye test findings and the control group included 45 right eyes of 45 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. The ocular surface disease index score, tear osmolarity, Schirmer I test without anesthesia, fluorescein tear breakup time, and cornea-conjunctiva staining with lissamine green (van Bijsterveld scoring) were used to examine tear function in the patients via a complete ophthalmological examination. The results were graded and classified on the basis of a Dry Eye WorkShop report and results of the corneal and conjunctival staining test, Schirmer’s test, and fluorescein tear breakup time test. Discomfort, severity and frequency of symptoms, visual symptoms, conjunctival injection, eyelid-meibomian gland findings, and corneal-tear signs were interpreted. Disease activity was scored per the EULAR Sjögren’s syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) via systemic examination and laboratory evaluations, and the EULAR Sjögren’s syndrome patient-reported index (ESSPRI) assessed via a survey of patient responses. Results: Mean patient age was 48.15 ± 16.34 years in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 44.06 ± 9.15 years in the control group. Mean fluorescein tear breakup time was 4.51 ± 2.89s in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 10.20 ± 2.39 s in the control group. Mean Schirmer I test result was 3.51 ± 3.18 mm/5 min in the primary Sjögren syndrome group and 9.77±2.30 mm/5 min in the control group. Mean ocular surface disease index score was 18.56 ± 16.09 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 19.92 ± 7.16 in the control group. Mean osmolarity was 306.48 ± 19.35 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 292.54 ± 10.67 in the control group. Mean lissamine green staining score was 2.17 ± 2.76 in the primary Sjögren syndrome group, and 0.00 in the control group. Statistically significant differences were found berween the primary Sjögren syndrome group and control group in terms of fluorescein tear breakup time, Schirmer’s test, lissamine green staining, and osmolarity tests (p=0.036, p=0.041, p=0.001, and p=0.001 respectively). The Dry Eye WorkShop score was 2.15 ± 0.98, the EULAR Sjögren’s syndrome disease activity index score was 11.18 ± 4.05, and the EULAR Sjögren’s syndrome patient-reported index score was 5.20±2.63. When potential associations of the Dry Eye Workshop Study scores and osmolarity scores with the Eular Sjögren’s syndrome disease activity index scores were evaluated, the results were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001, p=0.001 respectively). Conclusion: The results showed an association between dry eye severity and systemic activity index in primary Sjögren syndrome patients.