Autoimmune limbic encephalitis: A manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus in the central nervous system
Autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare entity with few reports in the literature to date. In general, ALE associated with SLE has a satisfactory response to immunosuppressive treatment (RIT), but the pathogenesis of this association is poorly understood and may include an autoimmunity component. We report a case study describing the diagnosis and management of limbic encephalitis in a patient with active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus disease (SLE) and past medical history of cancer (endometrial adenocarcinoma in 2004 and papillary urothelial carcinoma in 2011 with curative treatment), followed over a one-year period. We discuss the possible association between limbic encephalitis and all past neoplastic and immune-mediated conditions of this patient. In this particularly case, autoimmunity was the most relevant factor associated with limbic encephalitis given negative neoplastic screening. Moreover, a good response was observed to immunotherapy, not seen with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, which is associated with poor response. In this case, the association of ALE with SLE is possible, since laboratory testing disclosed lupic activity and the patient had involvement of other systems (such as hematologic) during the period. However, the presence of other surface membrane antibodies are possible in the search for alternative etiologies.