BONE GEOMETRY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
ABSTRACT Objective: To perform a systematic review on the practice of physical activity and/or sports in health and its influence on bone geometry of healthy children and adolescents. Data source: The method used as reference was the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Databases searched for articles published from 2006 to 2016, with “Bone geometry” AND (Sport* OR Exercise* OR “Physical Activity”) as descriptors, were PubMed, BIREME/LILACS and SciELO. Data syntheses: After the selection, 21 articles were included. Most studies stated that practice of physical activity and/or sports was beneficial for bone geometry and bone mineral density. Only two studies presented values of bone parameters for control individuals better than those of swimmers. Physical activities and sports studied were: gymnastics (n=7), rhythmic gymnastics (n=2), tennis (n=1), soccer (n=3), capoeira (n=1), swimming (n=4), cycling (n=0), jumping activities (n=2), studies relating physical activity with isokinetic peak torque (n=1), physical activity measured by questionnaire (n=4), and additional physical education classes (n=2). Conclusions: Among the sports and physical activities found, gymnastics, soccer, and more intense physical activity assessed by questionnaires were mentioned along with better results in bone geometry compared to the absence of physical activity, whereas swimming and jumping exercises did not influence it. Therefore, sports activities with weight bearing and those practiced more frequently and intensively are beneficial for bone geometry.