Bioactive metabolites in of Ginkgo biloba leaves: variations by seasonal, meteorological and soil

Abstract Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine containing multiple components that contribute to its notable bioactivities. Variations of seasonal, meteorological and planting soil on the phytochemicals contents in G. biloba leaves due to the effects of growth meteorological and soil parameters were investigated in this study. The leaves of G. biloba were collected from different months and place in Zhejiang province, the contents of flavones (quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and terpene lactones (bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B and C) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) method. The established methods were validated with good linearity, precision, repeatability, stability, and recovery. Comprehensive analysis suggested the proper harvest time for G. biloba was in October of Zhejiang province. The result of correlation analysis with meteorological factors shows that the temperature and precipitation have non-significant effect on the main components of G. biloba. In addition, the type and content (Mn and Zn) of the soil showed significantly effect on the content of flavonoids and terpene lactones. This study enriched the knowledge on the development and utilization value of the G. biloba leaves and was useful for determining the optimal harvest time and growing condition.