Biological activities of marine invertebrates extracts from the northeast brazilian coast
Abstract This paper reports the in vitro antiproliferative effects, antiprotozoal, anti-herpes and antimicrobial activities of 32 organic extracts of 14 marine sponges and 14 corals collected in northeast Brazilian coast. The ethanolic extracts of the sponges Amphimedon compressa and Tedania ignis, and the acetone extract of Dysidea sp. showed relevant results concerning the antiproliferative effects against A549, HCT-8, and PC-3 cell lines by sulforhodamine B assay, but also low specificity. Concerning the antiprotozoal screening, the ethanolic extract of Amphimedon compressa and the acetone and ethanolic extracts of Dysidea sp. were the most active against Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi expressing β-galactosidase in THP-1 cells. In the preliminary anti-HSV-1 (KOS strain) screening, the ethanolic extracts of the sponges Amphimedon compressa, Haliclona sp. and Chondrosia collectrix inhibited viral replication by more than 50%. The most promising anti-herpes results were observed for the ethanolic extract of Haliclona sp. showing high selective indices against HSV-1, KOS and 29R strains (SI> 50 and >79, respectively), and HSV-2, 333 strain (IS>108). The results of the antibacterial screening indicated that only the ethanolic extract of Amphimedon compressa exhibited a weak activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli by the disk diffusion method. In view of these results, the extracts of Amphimedon compressa, Tedania ignis and Dysidea sp. were selected for further studies aiming the isolation and identification of the bioactive compounds with antiproliferative and/or antiprotozoal activities. The relevant anti-herpes activity of the ethanolic extract of Haliclona sp. also deserves special attention, and will be further investigated.