CHEMOMETRIC TOOLS AND FTIR-ATR SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED IN MILK ADULTERATED WITH CHEESE WHEY
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Brazilian law forbids the addition of cheese whey in milk. However, adulteration with cheese whey is one of the most applied fraud due to its low cost. The detection of this fraud is the quantification of Caseinomacropeptide (CMP). The CMP is a constituent of the whey that can be used as adulteration marker. Thus, an analytical method capable of identifying CMP by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) was developed using chemometrics methods. Firstly, we attempted to develop an exploratory analysis model by Hierarchical Grouping Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that indicated similarity between samples of raw milk and semi-skimmed milk. Moreover, in the PCA scores, it was possible to observe a tendency of separation between samples with different concentrations of CMP. Afterwards, multivariate regression models were used for Partial Least Squares (PLS), Partial Least Square with Interval Synergism (siPLS) and Supporting Machines with Least Squares (LS-SVM) to quantify the adulteration in different types of milk by Cheese serum through the CMP. All the models were then compared to each other and the results of the official method with Liquid Chromatography Tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) analysis used by the Ministry of Livestock and Supply (MAPA). The model LS-SVM, employing the full spectrum, obtained the best result compared to the other models (PLS and siPLS) to quantify the CMP in the milk samples.