COLOSTRUM FAT AND ENERGY CONTENT: EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND FETAL GROWTH
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ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether fat content and energy value change in colostrum according to gestational age and fetal growth. Methods: Cross-sectional study with mothers of preterm and term infants born in a tertiary center in 2015-2016. Inclusion criteria: single pregnancy, absence of diabetes, chorioamnionitis and mastitis, no use of illicit drugs or alcohol, without fetal congenital malformation or infection. Four groups were formed according to gestational age and fetal growth: preterm infants small for gestational age (PT-SGA; n=33) and appropriate for gestational age (PT-AGA; n=60), term infants small for gestational age (T-SGA; n=59) and appropriate for gestational age (T-AGA; control, n=73). Colostrum was collected between 24-72 hours postpartum. Gestational and birth variables were analyzed. Outcome variables were: fat content in colostrum (evaluated by crematocrit method) and estimated energy value. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests, ANOVA, and multivariable linear regression were used for comparison among groups. Results: Mean gestational age was 34 weeks in preterm infants and 39 weeks in term neonates. Crematocrit did not differ between groups, with mean values varying between 3.3 and 4.0%; estimated energy value was 52 to 56 kcal/dL. Crematocrit ≥4% was more frequent in the T-SGA group. Only in the PT-SGA group there was a correlation between crematocrit and body mass index of the mother. Conclusions: The fat content and energy value of colostrum did not change according to gestational age or fetal growth.