Cardiovascular Risk Estimation by the ASCVD Risk Estimator Application in a University Hospital
Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for many deaths in Brazil and in the world, especially in the economically active population. Risk factors for these diseases include comorbidities such as high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipidemia. Innovation of portable technology combined with the high prevalence of CVDs motivated the development of the ASCVD Risk Estimator by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology. Objectives: Estimate the cardiovascular risk of patients hospitalized in the internal medicine wards of Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital (HUGG) using the ASCVD Risk Estimator, and describe the main risk factors in this population. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted, the following data were collected from the medical records: sex, age, ethnicity, presence of HBP, DM, systolic arterial pressure, smoking habits, total cholesterol and HDL levels. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test, with calculation of p-value, relative risk and confidence interval in the correlations. Results: A total of 339 medical records were reviewed, and 72 (21.2%) fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-three (32%) patients were classified as at high cardiovascular risk by the application. The main risk factors in the high risk group were age greater than or equal to 60 years (n = 21; 91.30%), dyslipidemia (n = 15; 65,2%), high blood pressure (n = 15; 65.2%), male sex (n = 13; n = 56.5%) and smoking (n = 11; 47.8%). Conclusion: Approximately one third of the study population had a high cardiovascular risk; HBP and dyslipidemia were the most prevalent modifiable risk factor in the high risk group. We may say that there is no single protocol or score available able to estimate the cardiovascular risk of all individuals in the same way, and therefore, the physician must individually evaluate the patients and be updated on the best methods of disease prevention to improve current approaches.