Chlorophyll Fluorescence - a Tool for Quick Identification of Accase and ALS Inhibitor Herbicides Performance
ABSTRACT: Chlorophyll fluorescence measurement is a precise research technique that can be used for studying the effect of herbicides with different modes of action on photosynthetic apparatus. The aim of the present project was to study the variation of the fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve) and its variables affected by pinoxaden (ACCase inhibitor) and mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron herbicide (ALS inhibitor) in littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu). This study was carried out at the Greenhouse of Collage of Agriculture at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2013. Experiments were performed based on a completely randomized design in form of a dose-response test with six doses of each herbicide plus an untreated control. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) was measured 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days after spraying (DAS). The results obtained in the study indicated that the estimated EDs parameters differed based on herbicide types or weed species. For example, ED90 varied from 11.67 to 28.61 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha-1. Moreover, the results showed that application of mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron at doses higher than 9 g a.i. ha-1 changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (Kautsky curve) in littleseed canarygrass at 7 DAS while herbicide doses of mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron did not change the shape of the Kautsky curve in wild oat. In addition, the Kautsky curve was observed to have an approximate permanent drop for littleseed canarygrass species at 2 DAS by pinoxaden. Comparing the fluorescence parameters in wild oat and littleseed canarygrass treated with two herbicides showed that Fv/Fm, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and Fvj, variable fluorescence at the J step of littleseed canarygrass decreased more than the mentioned parameters in wild oat. Furthermore, there was a strong relationship ranging from 0.53 to 0.79 between dry weights after 4 weeks and fluorescence parameters at 7 DAS depending on the herbicide type and weed species. Applying fluorescence parameters a few days after treatment to predict biomass production can be a defining criterion in research and development stages of herbicides to eliminate the need for whole plant bioassay. This method can also be applied to shorten the bioassay screening period and function as a suitable and cost effective indicator for monitoring of ACCase and ALS inhibitors. This approach also demonstrates serious damages to plant photosynthesis apparatus on crop during herbicide misapplication.