Clinical and epidemiological study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This is a quantitative study with cross-sectional and analytical design, which sample consisted of 425 patients treated in an unit of Specialized Care in Ophthalmology, located in the northern state of Minas Gerais, from 2004 to 2015. We collected the data using formularies that addressed demographic and clinical aspects, risk factors and the presence of undercurrent diseases. We conducted an ophthalmological examination to evaluate anatomical and functional changes. We used statistical analysis, and the results are presented by mean, standard deviation and percentiles 25, 50 and 75. Results: Females predominate (56.8%), the age group of 60 years or older (44%) and mixed skin (81.7%). A minority of participants present risk factors such as high myopia (6.3%) and diabetes mellitus (17.9%). Regarding the clinical examination, there is a prevalence of increased optic nerve excavation (≥ 0.8) and low thickness of the corneas (≤ 535 microns). Conclusion: Most people develop advanced glaucoma, with increased optic nerve excavation and changed visual fields. Other common risk factors are: family history of glaucoma, decreased thickness of the cornea and hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent vision loss. Primary care physicians should consider referring patients who have glaucoma risk factors, for an ophthalmologic examination.