Co-occurrence of Smoking and Unhealthy Diet in the Brazilian Adult Population

Abstract Background: Smoking and an inadequate diet are behavioral risk factors that contribute to the majority of deaths and disabilities caused by noncommunicable diseases. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of the co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate diet and identify associated factors in adults. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with a sample of 28,950 Brazilian adults (18 to 59 years old). Data were obtained from Sistema de Vigilância por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Telephone Survey]) in 2014. Independent associations were investigated using Poisson hierarchical regression analysis with 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of the co-occurrence of smoking and unhealthy eating was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.9-9.3) and was higher among individuals residing in the southern region of the country than in those living in the central western region (PR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.18-1.89), those with no private health insurance (PR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), those who drank alcohol abusively (binge drinkers) (PR = 3.22; 95% CI: 2.70-3.85) and those who self-rated their health as fair (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.36-1.99) or poor/very poor (PR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.18-2.44). The prevalence of both factors was lower among individuals residing in the northeastern region of the country, women, individuals with brown skin color, those with a spouse, the more educated ones and those with overweight or obesity. Conclusion: The more vulnerable segments to the co-occurrence of the risk factors studied were men residing in the southern region of the country, individuals with a lower socioeconomic status and those who reported binge drinking. Interventions addressing multiple behavioral risk factors adapted to specific contexts could have a greater impact on the Brazilian population.