Common bean resistance expression to whitefly in winter and rainy seasons in Brazil
ABSTRACT: Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B is the major pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Brazil and other countries. Host plant resistance is one of the cornerstones of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and assessment of cultivars for insect resistance is fundamental to provide farmers options for pest control. This study evaluated common bean resistance to whitefly in the winter and rainy seasons in Jaboticabal, Brazil, and correlated the infestation with climatic factors. The plant part and development period of common bean that are more susceptible to whitefly infestation were also examined for potential use in IPM. Field experiments were carried out using 18 and 19 commercial cultivars in the winter and rainy seasons, respectively. Whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults in the upper part and lower part of plants were sampled from 25 to 60 days after emergence (DAE). Cultivars IAC-Una and IAC-Eldorado had less oviposition and the former also showed lower adult infestation in the winter season. In the rainy season, cultivars IAPAR-81 and Guará had a smaller number of eggs, whereas IAC-Centauro was less infested by nymphs. The number of nymphs and adults was similar among cultivars in the winter and rainy seasons, respectively. The upper part of plants had a greater number of eggs and adults, while, the lower part harbored larger numbers of nymphs. Common bean was more susceptible to whitefly at 25-32 DAE in both seasons. These results add useful information to IPM of whitefly in common bean.