Comparison between a piezoelectric device and rotary instruments in implant site preparation: an in vivo morphological, histological analysis using pigs

OBJECTIVE: To carry out a histological comparison, at different postoperative periods, of bone tissue repair after implant site preparations on the tibia of pigs using both a piezoelectric device and rotary instruments. METHODS: Surgical procedures were performed on the tibia of four pigs. Five perforations were made in the left tibia using star shaped piezosurgery tips (Piezosonic Driller(r)) and five perforations in the right tibia using carbon coated rotary drills (DSP Biomedical(r)). The pigs were then sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. The tibiae were removed and the tissues were prepared for histological processing and analysis under a light microscope. RESULTS: The histological analyses showed similar results at 2 days and both groups presented inflammatory infiltrate. At 7 days, the drill system produces a regular surface preparation and the process of bone repair was greater when compared with the piezoelectric device. At 14 days the presence of new bone formation was more intense with the drill system. However, at 28 days both systems showed similar results, with the presence of an organized, newly formed bone tissue. CONCLUSION: It was possible to conclude that both implant site preparations, using the piezoelectric device and rotatory instruments, resulted in similar bone neoformation at 28 days.