Competition in the arts of midwifery in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1835 to 1900

Abstract The article discusses competition between midwives and doctors offering birth-related services in the city of Rio de Janeiro from 1835 to 1900. The research analyzed minutes from meetings, textbooks on births, and terms from qualification examinations for physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, and midwives at the Rio de Janeiro Medical School (Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro), as well as announcements by and advertisements for doctors and midwives in columns featuring advertisements and useful recommendations in the Jornal do Commercio newspaper. An increase in the number of delivery physicians, and their scientific discourses led midwives to feel an obligation to diversify their clientele, consequently establishing themselves and working in lower-class and inhospitable areas.