Constructed Wetlands Systems Batch: removal of Biochemical Oxygen Demand and pH regulation for treatment dairy effluent
This work assessed the effectiveness of using constructed wetlands (CW's) to treat dairy effluent. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the influence of substrates and cultivated plants on the efficiency of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) removal and pH regulation in six experimental units operating at pilot scale. Six CW's for dairy sewage treatment were constructed in 100-liter High-Density Polyethylene Ethylene (HDPE) tanks. Three constructed wetlands containing fine gravel (0 mm) and another three with a mix of 20% sand and 80% fine gravel (0 mm) were used in the filtering stage. Four experimental units were planted with the macrophytes Typha dominguensis (cattail) and Hedychium coronarium (pond lily), the selected plants for this study, and two others were maintained as control units. A minimum average of 77.8% and a maximum of 95.2% BOD efficiency removal were achieved and a pH range of 5 to 9 was maintained as required by the Brazilian Resolution CONAMA N. 430 /2011 in order to release the effluent into a waterway. The six treatments showed similar removal of biodegradable carbonaceous compounds with no significant differences between the treatments at a 95% confidence level. This work showed that CW's operating in batch can be used to treat dairy raw water for BOD removal and pH regulation.