Critical evaluation of the surgical techniques to correct the equinus deformity.

ABSTRACT The equinus deformity causes changes in the foot contact and may affect more proximal anatomical regions, such as the knee, hip and trunk, potentially leading to gait disorders. The equinus is usually secondary to retraction, shortening and/or spasticity of the triceps surae, and it may require surgical correction. Surgery for the correction of equinus is one of the oldest procedures in Orthopedics, and it was initially performed only at the calcaneus tendon. The technique has evolved, so that it could be customized for each patient, depending on the degree of deformity, the underlying disease, and patient´s profile. The aim is to correct the deformity, with minimal interference in muscle strength, thus reducing the incidence of disabling complications such as crouch gait and calcaneus foot. We conducted a literature search for the most common surgical techniques to correct the equinus deformity using classic books and original articles. Further, we performed a database search for articles published in the last ten years. From the anatomical perspective, the triceps surae presents five anatomical regions that can be approached surgically for the equinus correction. Due to the complexity of the equinus, orthopedic surgeons should be experienced with at least one procedure at each region. In this text, we critically approach and analyze the most important techniques for correction of the equinus, mainly to avoid complications.