Cytotoxicity of intracanal dressings on apical papilla cells differ upon activation with E. faecalis LTA

<div><p>Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of modified triple antibiotic paste and an experimental composition using calcium hydroxide on lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-primed apical papilla cells (APC). Material and Methods Human APC were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity of modified Triple Antibiotic Paste (mTAP – Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Cefaclor at 1:1:1) and of a paste of Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Calcium hydroxide (CMC – 1:1:2) and modified CMC (mCMC – 2:2:1) by using MTT assay. The substances were reconstituted in DMEM at 1,000 µg/mL and ¼ serially diluted before being kept in contact with cells for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Further, cells were primed with 1 µg/mL of Enterococcus faecalis LTA for 7 days prior to the viability test with 1,000 µg/mL of each substance. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-way ANOVA respectively followed by Tukey’s post-test. Significance levels were set at p<0.05. Results In the first assay, the higher cytotoxic rates were reached by mTAP for all experimental periods. CMC was found toxic for APC at 5 and 7 days, whereas mCMC did not affect the cell viability. Only CMC and mCMC were able to induce some cellular proliferation. In the second assay, when considering the condition with medium only, LTA-primed cells significantly proliferated in comparison to LTA-untreated ones. At this context, mTAP and CMC showed similar cytotoxicity than the observed for LTA-untreated cells, while mCMC was shown cytotoxic at 7 days only for LTA-primed APC. Comparing the medications, mTAP was more cytotoxic than CMC and mCMC. Conclusion mTAP showed higher cytotoxicity than CMC and mCMC and the effect of topic antimicrobials might differ when tested against apical papilla cells under physiological or activated conditions.</p></div>