DOES TOPICAL USE OF GENTAMICIN REDUCE THE INFECTION RATE IN PRIMARY TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY?

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether the topical use of gentamicin reduces periprosthetic joint infection rates in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated two cohorts of patients who underwent primary THA in a university hospital, with a minimum of 1-year postoperative follow-up and full clinical, laboratory, and radiological documentation. Patients who underwent operation in the first 59 months of the study period (263 hips) received only intravenous cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis (Cef group), and those who underwent operation in the following 43 months (170 hips) received intravenous cefazolin plus topical gentamicin directly applied on the wound as antibiotic prophylaxis (Cef + Gen group). For the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection, we used the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, and p values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Thirteen hips (4.9%) in the Cef group and eight hips (4.7%) in the Cef + Gen group presented periprosthetic joint infection. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between the infection rates (p = 1.0). Conclusion: Topical gentamicin as used in this study did not reduce periprosthetic joint infection rates in primary THA. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective comparative study.