Depression and anxiety disorders among patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1: a cross-sectional study with a comparison group

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have linked human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) to psychiatric disease. METHODS: Patients with HTLV-1 were compared to patients seen by family doctors using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Participants with (n=58) and without (n=340) HTLV were compared. Anxiety and depression were associated with greater age, being a woman, spastic paraparesis (depression: PR=4.50, 95% CI: 3.10-6.53; anxiety: PR=2.96, 95% CI: 2.08-4.21), and asymptomatic HTLV (depression: PR=4.34, 95% CI: 3.02-6.24; anxiety: PR=2.81, 95% CI: 2.06-3.85). CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with HTLV-1 experienced more anxiety and depression than uninfected patients.