Determination of periodontal biotype through analysis of intra-oral photographs

Abstract Objective To characterize the Periodontal Biotypes (PB) through photographs and verify the agreement with the clinical method of determination as well as with different Dental professionals. Material and method Standardized photographs and intraoral clinical evaluation of 34 patients (n = 34) were performed for dichotomous characterization of PB in thin and thick. The subjective assessment, through photography, was compared to clinical method of probing transparency. The PB determination by photographs was performed through the application of a questionnaire containing three categories (thin, thick intermediate) directed to 90 dental professionals. They were equally divided into 3 groups: general practitioners, periodontists and prosthodontists. The concordance in both comparisons was evaluated through the Kappa Test, in addition to the sensitivity and specificity tests. Result In the comparison between the clinical and the photographic method, there was no agreement (K = 0.264, p = 0.113). However, in the comparison between the groups of professionals, a low agreement (kappa = 0.160; p <0.05) was found between periodontists and prothesis, as well as between prosthesis and general practitioners (kappa = 0.110; p = 0.142). Greater agreement, although weak, between periodontists and general practitioners (kappa = 0.291, p = 0.00). The questionnaire obtained a higher sensitivity and specificity value for the diagnosis of thick PB. Conclusion The evaluation of patients through clinical parameters is still necessary to characterize PB, since the determination using visual analysis using photography, regardless of specialty, was not effective, although thick PB was the most easily identified.