Dextrorotatory Chromomycins from the Marine Streptomyces sp. Associated to Palythoa caribaeorum
A Streptomyces sp. (BRA-384) was selected among nine strains of bacteria isolated from the zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum due to the high cytotoxic activity presented by its EtOAc extract (inhibitory concentration mean (IC50) of 2 ng mL-1) against colon cancer cell line. From the EtOAc extract of BRA-384 three new chemical entities (A6, A7 and A8) and one dextrorotatory chromomycin (A5), a promising class of anticancer compounds, were identified. The cytotoxicity of chromomycins A5 to A8 was tested against five tumor cell lines (HCT 116 (human colon adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma), PC-3M (human metastatic prostate cancer), 501-mel (human metastatic melanoma) and MM200 (metastatic melanoma)). All chromomycins were highly potent showing IC50 values from 0.2 to 133 nM. Chromomycin A5 was consistently the most potent over all tested cells (IC50 values from 0.2 in MM200 to 7.9 nM in PC-3M), inclusive when compared to the standard chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin, that presented IC50 values ranging from 147 to 568 nM against MM200 and MCF-7, respectively.