Diagnosis and treatment of the Nutcracker syndrome: a review of the last 10 years

<p></p><p>Abstract The nutcracker syndrome is characterized by a group of clinical manifestations caused by compression of the Left Renal Vein. The main symptoms are: macro and micro hematuria, proteinuria, and flank pain. Diagnosis is usually made after excluding other causes, because there are no clinical criteria for diagnosis. Confirmation is by Doppler ultrasonography or computed tomography. Treatment can vary, depending on patient characteristics and the severity of the symptoms, while conservative treatment, open surgery, and endovascular surgery may be employed. Currently, open surgery is still the first-line treatment, but some less invasive approaches are gaining acceptance.</p><p></p>