Different classes of bean flour added to muffins
Abstract The muffin consists of an individual portion of cake, of great acceptance, but usually elaborated with ingredients of high caloric value, like all cakes. For this reason, the muffin has been used as a vehicle for the incorporation of ingredients and nutrients that promote nutritional enrichment. The purpose of this work was to prepare muffins with partial substitution of the wheat flour by different classes of bean flour (white, red, “carioca” and black beans) and evaluate their physical properties, chemical composition and sensory attributes. The ingredients of the standard muffin (MP) were wheat flour, milk, eggs, soy oil, baking powder and sugar. For the other muffins, 30% of the wheat flour was substituted by white bean (MFB), red bean (MFV), “carioca” bean (MFC) and black bean (MFP) flours. The substitution of wheat flour by bean flour resulted in higher yields and smaller weight losses on baking, suggesting that the bean flours conferred a greater water holding capacity without affecting the volume of the muffins. Substitution of the wheat flour also entailed higher costs of the raw doughs, in proportion to the commercial value of the bean classes. However, after the baking process and considering the yields and final weights, the costs of the muffin units were similar. Nutritionally, an increment in the nutritional values occurred with increases in the mineral matter, protein, dietary fibre and total phenolic compounds, in detriment of the digestible carbohydrates and caloric value. Regarding the sensorial attributes, only MFB and MFP showed acceptance, purchase intention and preference equivalent to MP, but all the muffins showed high acceptance indexes. The partial substitution of energetic ingredients, such as wheat flour, by bean flour, made it possible to obtain muffins with adequate physical properties, higher nutritional quality and high acceptance indexes, without increasing the price of the final product.