Differential Hormetic Response of Fenoxaprop-p-Ethyl Resistant and Susceptible Phalaris minor Populations: a Potential Factor in Resistance Evolution
ABSTRACT: Resistance evolution in weeds against all major herbicide groups demand investigations to identify various factors responsible for resistance development. Herbicide hormesis has not yet been included in the list of factors promoting the evolution of resistance. Studies were conducted to evaluate the degree of hormesis in fenoxaprop-p-ethyl susceptible and resistant Phalaris minor to provide a first indication of whether hormesis is a potential factor in the development of resistance. In the first experiment, a wide range of doses up to 160% of the recommended field rate was used to identify potential hormetic doses for resistant and susceptible P. minor populations. Doses below 40% have been designated as potential hormetic doses. In the second experiment, ten different doses of fenoxaprop below 40% (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32% of the recommended rate) were sprayed at the 4-5 leaf stage of both resistant and susceptible P. minor populations. At fifteen days after spraying, dose range of 2-12% and 2-20% caused a significant increase (up to 22% and 24%) in growth traits of susceptible and resistant populations, respectively. At maturity, dose range of 2-12% for susceptible and 2-24% for resistant populations caused a significant increase (up to 20% and 57%) in growth and seed production potential (13% and 17%), respectively. The upper limit of the hormetic dose range (16 to 24%) for the resistant population was inhibitory for the susceptible populations. These results indicate that fenoxaprop hormesis could play a vital role in the evolution of fenoxaprop resistance in P. minor.