Early fragmentation of polyester urethane sheet neither causes persistent oxidative stress nor alters the outcome of normal tissue healing in rat skin

Abstract Silicone breast implant is associated with complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Prosthesis coating with polyurethane, however, commonly reduces the incidence of such complications. In this paper, the authors evaluated the inflammatory histomorphometric profile and oxidative damage associated to the implant of polyester urethane sheets. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into Sham or polyester urethane groups (n = 8/group) and underwent a polyester urethane implant in the dorsal skinfold. Tissue samples were collected on days seven, 30, and 90 after surgery and subjected to histomorphometric analysis and biochemical tests. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Peri-implant tissue samples exhibited characteristic inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial, with increased vascularization on day seven and augmented levels of IL1-b and TNF-a after 30 days. Peri-implant fibrocystic population was small on day seven, but increased considerably after 90 days. A rise in the carbonyl group levels of skin samples in the polyester urethane group was observed on day seven. Findings suggest that polyester urethane sheets undergo biodegradation at an early stage after implantation, followed by increased vascularity and microencapsulation of biomaterial fragments, without persistent oxidative damage. Fiber arrangement inside the collagen matrix results in a fibrotic scar because of polyester urethane degradation.