Effects of Low Molecular Weight Heparin on Alveolar Bone Loss in Wistar Rats

Abstract This study aimed to assess the effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on alveolar bone loss (ABL), blood count, and counting of megakaryocytes and adipocytes in male Wistar rats. Forty male 60-day Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C), Periodontal Disease (PD), Heparin (Hp) and Heparin + Periodontal Disease (Hp+PD). LMWH was applied for 60 days at doses of 1 ml/kg/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 and 60. On day-49, PD and Hp+PD groups were subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis around second upper right molar. The left side was assessed as spontaneous alveolar bone loss. Mean ABL in the side with ligature showed significantly different between C (0.35±0.07 mm) and Hp+DP (0.49±0.09 mm) groups (p<0.001), between PD (0.55±0.11 mm) and Hp (0.32±0.06 mm) groups (p<0.001) and between Hp and Hp+DP groups (p<0.001). No significant differences were found among groups for ABL in the side without ligature. Animal weight, food intake, and water consumption showed no statistically significant difference among groups. Megakaryocytes and adipocytes were counted using optical microscopy and no statistically significant differences were found. Within-groups, there were an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the counting of lymphocytes (p=0.005 for C and p=0.009 for Hp+PD groups only) and leukocytes (p=0.003 for C, p=0.001 for PD, p=0.002 for Hp, and p<0.001 for Hp+PD groups). There was no decrease in the number of platelets in the three collection periods. LMWH was not able to affect ABL, but it may change the blood counting, especially increasing lymphocytes.