Effects of global climate change on chlorophyll-a concentrations in a tropical aquatic system during a cyanobacterial bloom: a microcosm study
Abstract Recent studies have investigated the impact of climate change on aquatic environments, and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration is a quick and reliable variable for monitoring such changes. This study evaluated the impact of rainfall frequency as a diluting agent and the effect of increased temperature on Chl-a concentrations in eutrophic environments during a bloom of cyanobacteria. This was based on the hypothesis that the concentration of Chl-a will be higher in treatments in which the rainfall frequency is not homogeneous and that warmer temperatures predicted due to climate change should favor higher concentrations of Chl-a. The experiment was designed to investigate three factors: temperature, precipitation and time. Temperature was tested with two treatment levels (22°C and the future temperature of 25°C). Precipitation was tested with four treatments (no precipitation, a homogeneous precipitation pattern, and two types of concentrated precipitation patterns). Experiments were run for 15 days, and Chl-a concentration was measured every five days in each of the temperature and precipitation treatments. The water used in the microcosms was collected from a eutrophic lake located in Central Brazil during a bloom of filamentous cyanobacteria (Geilterinema amphibium). Chl-a levels were high in all treatments. The higher temperature treatment showed increased Chl-a concentration (F=10.343; P=0.002); however, the extreme precipitation events did not significantly influence Chl-a concentrations (F=1.198; P=0.326). Therefore, the study demonstrates that future climatic conditions (projected to 2100), such as elevated temperatures, may affect the primary productivity of aquatic environments in tropical aquatic systems.