Efficacy, toxicity, and lethality of plants with potential anthelmintic activity in small ruminants in Brazil

SUMMARY The use of medicinal plants as a therapeutic method in the control of diseases has been increasing in animal production. In the case of small ruminants, the endoparasitic disease is a major concern, since they are considered the greater sanitary problem, especially when considering the phenomenon of parasite resistance to the medicines used. Therefore, the development of alternative methods of endoparasitary control in goats and sheep has become a pressing need. The use of plants to control endoparasites can reduce the use of chemical inputs, making more environmentally sustainable livestock, minimizing the occurrence of parasitic resistance to conventional medicines and contributing to the reduction of production costs. In this sense, several studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activity of plants with anthelmintic potential. However, despite the potentiality found in many studies, the results are sometimes contradictory or do not replicate in vivo the same efficacy obtained in the in vitro assays. Another relevant aspect is the low utilization of the lethality and toxicity tests, which are indispensable so that the knowledge can be spread and applied by the producers in their herds. Thus, this review aims to provide the results from studies carried out in Brazil with extract of plants with potential for control of parasitic disease in goats and sheep, describing the main evaluated plants species, mechanisms of action, preparation forms and tests of efficacy, toxicity, and lethality.