Emmy Nöther’s Theorem, 100 years: Allegory of the Misogyny in Science

Abstract The Nöther's theorem is revisited with two main goals: to reinforce the meaning of such results for the contemporary physics and to present aspects of the Nöther's biography emphasizing the misogyny process that she suffered during her scientific life, despite of the recognized importance of her results even when she was alive. Under this perspective, the Nöther's live raises questions about the present-day participation of women in science. This aspect is addressed by an analysis of female researchers, by using data from CNPq and CAPES (two Brazilian Government agencies). In order to discuss and to present a proper dimension of the Nöther results, emphasizing such results for physics, an algebraic way is followed (usually such results are derived through the Lagrangian formalism); however, as much as possible, looking for a pedagogical presentation.