Ensino de Geociências na universidade
ABSTRACT In colonial times, in Brazil, although intense mining activities occurred in the search for gold and diamonds, relevant geoscientific actions did not occur. In the 19th century, a few geological exploratory trips were made, from which several written contributions resulted. Moreover, important institutions were created, such as the National Observatory, the Meteorological Service, the Magnetic Observatory at Vassouras and the Mining School of Ouro Preto in 1876, The formal teaching of Geosciences in Brazil started only in 1957, with the ”Campaign for the training of geologists” (CAGE), that created and provided material and human resources to four Geology undergraduate courses. In Meteorology the first course was in 1973, in Oceanography in 1971 and in Geophysics in 1983. Now, 48 Brazilian universities offer 71 undergraduate courses in Geosciences, 33 in Geology, 3 in Geological Engineering, 14 in Meteorology, 13 in Oceanography and 8 in Geophysics. Fifty-seven graduate programs exist in Brazil, 13 of which are considered of excellence, indicating that the area is mature and consolidated. Most geologists and geophysicists were absorbed in geological mapping activities, as well as mining and oil exploration. Meteorologists dedicated themselves to meteorological and climatic monitoring, as well as to projects in hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. Graduates in Oceanography worked in institutions related to the environment, agriculture, and to the Ministry of the Navy. The atmospheric and oceanographic sciences are of global relevance in studies of climatic changes and global warming. In turn, the major challenge of geologists and geophysicists is to improve knowledge of the Brazilian territory, at the local and regional scale.