Epidemiological profile of infectious keratitis

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic aspects of cornea ulcers in a referred ophthalmology private practice center. Methods: Retrospective study over electronic files of patients treated for corneal ulcers during a period of 7 years by the same physician (RJMF) at Centro de Olhos São Francisco, between june 2007 and june 2014. These patients were evaluated for risk factors such as: trauma causes, co-morbidities and contact lenses use. They were also evaluated by the microorganism found at the smears, treatment and patient's outcome. Patients that didn't return with the smears results or that didn´t have a complete follow-up were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 242 patients were fully treated during this period. 55 patients were excluded and 187 patients were included. 28.88% (54/187) were positive for gram negative bacteria, 27.81% (52/187) for filamentous fungi, 16.04% (29/187) for gram positive bacteria and only 1.07% for acanthamoeba. Twenty-four patients had negative cultures and 21 patients had combined infections (bacteria + fungi or other combination). Corneal collagen Cross-linking was effective on melting arrest in 16 of the 16 patients that we have submitted to this procedure during 2008 and 2009. Among all the patients that had corneal infection and were previously using contact lenses, 81% were infected by pseudomonas or pseudomonas associated with other gram negative bacteria. Filamentous fungi had a strong association with physical trauma. While use of saline solution for contact lenses cleaning had a strong association with gram negative bacteria and biological trauma, a strong association with combined infection. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas) followed by filamentous fungi (Fusarium sp) were the most frequent etiologic agent found in our study. Cross-link was effective on corneal melting arrest. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequent isolated agent on hydrophilic contact lenses wearers.