Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Inhibited the Alv-J-Induced Apoptosis in Df-1 Cells by Inactivation of Nuclear Factor κb Pathway

ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), a member of the retroviridae family, can infect both broilers and layers and induce a spectrum of different neoplasms, resulting in serious economic losses in poultry production. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent of green tea, has demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive effects in many animal tumor bioassays, cell culture systems and epidemiological studies. To assess the antiviral effects of EGCG on ALV-J-induced cell apoptosis in vitro, DF-1 cells were treated with different EGCG concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL), and their antiviral effects were examined at different time points (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) using a variety of assays. EGCG alleviated the ALV-J-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Because high concentrations (20 and 40 µg/mL) inhibited DF-1 cell growth, and low concentration (5 µg/mL) did not suppress the ALV-J virus, 10 µg/mL was the most appropriate concentration. After 96 h of incubation, 10 µg/mL EGCG improved the ALV-J-triggered suppression of the nuclear transcription factor system by enhancing cytoplasmic NF-κB p50/p65 expression and inhibiting nuclear NF-κB p50/p65 expression, resulting in decreased cell apoptosis. These results demonstrated that EGCG inhibited ALV-J-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that 10 µg/mL EGCG is the optimal concentration, which may be useful for therapeutic drug design.