Evaluation of bone loss due to primary occlusal trauma in two experimental models of occlusal overload

Abstract Introduction Primary occlusal trauma (OT) is an injury of the periodontium with normal height as a result of occlusal forces which exceed their adaptive capacity. Objective To evaluate, histometrically, the alveolar bone loss in the furcation region of rats experimentally submitted to 2 models of occlusal overload. Material and method 45 animals randomly divided into 3 groups: Occlusal Interference (OI, n = 15) - fixing an orthodontic wire segment on the occlusal surface of the first lower molar; Occlusal Overload (OO, n = 15) - wearing of the cusps of the lower contralateral molars, the second and third molars next to the first molar that had its dimensions maintained; Negative Control (NC, n = 15) - evaluation of the initial dimensions of the periodontal ligament (PL). Five animals / group were sacrificed after 14, 21 and 28 days. Result Intergroup evaluation showed significant bone loss in OI (p<0.001) and OO (p<0.01) compared to NC. OI had significantly higher bone loss compared to OO at 14 (p<0.01), 21 (p <0.01) and 28 days (p<0.01). The intragroup evaluation showed no significant influence of time on bone loss in OI and OO, regardless of the technique used (p>0.05). The thickness of the PL remained stable in NC (p>0.05). Conclusion OI and OO were effective in the experimental reproduction of OT, and OI promoted greater alveolar bone loss compared to OO, showing that the impact of occlusal overload in OI increased the extent of the OT injury.