Evaluation of the presence of furcation canal in molars by the scanning electron microscopy

Abstract Introduction The pulp cavity is still a mystery to be solved, because there may be numerous branches that need to be clarified so that the clinician can interpret and develop its role properly. One of the anatomical variations, which presents great controversy in the literature, is the recognition of the presence of the furcation canal. This canal comes from the pulp chamber floor, traverses the inter-radicular dentin and reaches the periodontal ligament in furcation region, constituting one of the lines of communication between the periodontal ligament and the pulp tissue, and may serve as a means of contamination. Objective To study the frequency of furcation canals in molars. Material and method Review of 5 (five) maxillary first molars, 10 (ten) maxillary seconds molars, 10 (ten) mandibular first molars and 10 (ten) mandibular seconds molars, using scanning electron microscopy. Result It was observed the presence of foramina in 30 floors and 50 of furcas of the mandibular first molar and 40 and 60 on the floor and furca of the mandibular second molar, respectively. The diameter of these foraminas ranged from 32 µm up to 312 µm. Conclusion The prevalence of furcation canal is variable when analyzing the different methodologies.