Evolution of soluble solid content and evaporation rate curves during the manufacture of dulce de leche (dl)

<div><p>Abstract Dulce de leche is an evaporated dairy product that can be manufactured in different types of pots or pans. The manufacturing endpoint for dulce de leche can be determined by measuring the soluble solids content. We investigated the evaporation rates and the evaporative capacity of atmospheric pressure evaporators (pans) during the manufacture of dulce de leche. During manufacturing, four different formulations were subjected to soluble solids content determination by refractometry. In addition, the mass balance was used to determine the yield and evaporation rate. A low coefficient of variation and amplitude was found for soluble solids content, indicating standardization and uniformity during fabrication. We also observed a gradual increase in the latter throughout manufacture, without significant differences between the times. The evaporated water mass rate and its respective equation allow to reproduce the same characteristics of the experimental product in experimental and industrial production of dulce de leche.</p></div>