Factors associated with gingival bleeding in adolescents

ABSTRACT Objective: Describe the relationship between gingival bleeding and risk factors (behavioral and psychosocial) in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in the city of São Lourenço da Mata, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted with 1154 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years randomly selected from public schools located in the city of São Lourenço da Mata in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Socio-demographic (sex, age and race), behavioral (oral hygiene, smoking, alcohol use and leisure activities) and psychosocial (self-esteem and self-perception) data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The presence/absence of gingival bleeding was determined using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The data were submitted to descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square test was used to determine associations between risk factors and gingival bleeding, with the significance level set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results: The response rate was 80% of 1418 adolescents initially proposed to compose the sample and the prevalence of bleeding was 50.3%. No associations were found between gingival bleeding and socio-demographic, behavioral or self-esteem factors. Regarding self-perception, a significant association was found between positive attitudes of satisfaction with one’s physical appearance and gingival bleeding (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gingival bleeding was found in most adolescents, but did not exert an influence on the satisfaction these individuals have regarding their physical appearance.