Fracture Load and Failure Mode of CAD-on Ceramic Structures
Abstract This study evaluated the fracture load (Lf) and the failure mode of CAD-on (Ivoclar Vivadent) ceramic structures, testing the hypotheses that Lf of multilayer structures is governed by the veneering ceramic strength and that chipping is more frequent in multilayer than monolithic structures. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated as follows: CAD-on- trilayer structure composed of Y-TZP (yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal- IPS e.max ZirCAD) infrastructure, fusion glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) and lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD); YLD- bilayer structure composed of Y-TZP infrastructure and fluorapatite layering ceramic (IPS e.max Ceram); LDC- monolithic lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD); and YZW- monolithic Y-TZP (Zenostar Zr Translucent). The specimens were loaded in compression until failure and fracture surfaces were evaluated using fractographic principles. Lf values were statistically analyzed using the Weibull statistics, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (a= 0.05). YZW (1329 N) and CAD-on (1085 N) showed the greatest Lf median values, followed by YLD (832 N) and LDC (421 N). All monolithic structures (LDC and YZW) fractured catastrophically and all YLD structures failed by chipping. The CAD-on technique seems to be a very promising fabrication process because it showed high Lf, similar to monolithic zirconia, and small chipping rate.