Genetic variability of Brazilian wheat germplasm obtained by high-density SNP genotyping

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of the wheat germplasm using high-density genotyping with SNP markers. A set of 211 wheat varieties genotyped with 35,142 SNP markers were used in the experiment. Genetic distances ranged from 0.013 to 0.471, with the highest frequency of distances varying between 0.31 and 0.40. In the cluster analysis by the UPGMA method, 81% of the varieties were clustered in three groups. Genetic variability in the Brazilian wheat germplasm has remained constant for over 70 years. Mean genetic distances among the varieties developed in each decade ranged from 0.33 to 0.34. A trend of genetic distance between genotypes from different eras has been observed over time as a result of breeding. Results described in this study can help Brazilian wheat breeders to manage more adequately genetic variability in the Brazilian wheat germplasm.