Germination and fungal infection of wild celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds, from southern Brazil, under different temperature and disinfection conditions
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ABSTRACT Seeds of wild celery (Apium graveolens L.) from southern Brazil were surface disinfected with different solutions of sodium hypochlorite (5 and 10%) and acetic acid (0.5, 1, 2, 4%), and germination success and fungal infection were evaluated after 28 days of incubation at a constant temperature of 30 ºC and 20/30 ºC thermoperiod (12h:12h). Germination of wild celery was inhibited at the constant temperature (30 ºC). Vigorous total germination (90-100%), a faster germination velocity (1.8-2.5 germinated seeds per day) and moderate fungal infection (53.3-81.7%) of wild celery seeds were obtained with the sodium hypochlorite treatments (5-10% concentration) under the 20/30 ºC thermoperiod. The 4% treatment of acetic acid was very effective at preventing seed fungal infection (only 5% of the seeds) but it reduced the average total germination to 60%. Lower concentrations of acetic acid (0.5-2%) resulted in 100% fungal infection. In conclusion, seedlings of wild celery from southern Brazil can be effectively produced by disinfecting the seeds with 5 -10% sodium hypochlorite and incubation under a 20/30 ºC thermoperiod (12h:12h).