Hemodynamic evaluation of elderly patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy
ABSTRACT Objective: to demonstrate hemodynamic changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly patients with trans-esophageal echocardiography. Methods: we studied 31 elderly patients (aged 60 years or older), ASA I or II, who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general, standardized anesthesia, with cardiovascular parameters measured using transesophageal echocardiography at three different times: before the pneumoperitoneum (T1), after CO2 insufflation (T2) and at deflation (T3). We statistically evaluated changes in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output and index, and ejection fraction. Results: although small, only the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and ejection fraction (EF) variations were statistically significant. The mean ± standard deviation of DBP in mmHg at the different times were: T1=67.5±10.3; T2=73.6±12.4; and T3=66.7±9.8. And for EF, in percentage (%) they were: T1=66.7±10.4; T2=63.2±9.9; and T3=68.1±8.4. There was no statistical correlation between hemodynamic variations, age and number of patients’ comorbidities. Conclusion: laparoscopic cholecystectomy causes few hemodynamic changes that are well tolerated by the majority of the elderly patients; prior impairment of ventricular function represents a threat in elderly patients during surgery; there appears to be a lower hemodynamic effect caused by the pneumoperitoneum than by the patient’s positioning in a reverse Trendelemburg during surgery.