High-viscosity glass-ionomer vs. composite resin restorations in persons with disability: Five-year follow-up of clinical trial

Abstract The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the 5-year cumulative survival of atraumatic restorative treatment restorations using high-viscosity glass-ionomer restorations (ART/HVGIC) and conventional resin composite restorations (CRT) placed in patients with intellectual and/or physical disability. Patients referred for restorative care to a special care service in Córdoba, Argentina, were recruited. Patients and/or caregivers were provided with written and verbal information regarding treatment options and selected the alternative they preferred. The treatment protocols were ART (hand instruments/HVGIC) in the clinic or CRT (rotary instrumentation/resin composite) in the clinic or under general anaesthesia (GA). Two independent, trained and calibrated examiners evaluated restoration survival using established ART codes after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months. The proportional hazard model with frailty corrections provided survival estimates. Jackknife errors were used to test 5-year results. Sixty-six patients (13.6 ± 7.8 years) with 16 different medical conditions participated. CRT in the clinic proved feasible for five patients (13%), and 14 patients received CRT under GA (21%). ART was provided for 47 patients (71.2%). A total number of 298 dentine carious lesions were restored in primary and permanent teeth (182 ART; 116 CRT). Four patients died between the 3 and 5-year follow up. Percentage survival and jackknife standard error were calculated and were significantly higher for all ART/HVGIC restorations (90.2% ± 2.6) than for all CRT restorations (82.8% ± 5.3), 5 years after placement (p=0.044). These 5-year follow-up results confirm that ART/HVGIC is an effective treatment protocol for patients with disability, equal to that of conventional resin composite restoration. The results of this clinical trial support the use of ART as an evidence-based treatment resource contributing to the reduction of inequalities in access to oral health care among people with disability.