Historical-cultural perspective and anthropological investigation in Chile: an approach to the contributions of Max Uhle, Martín Gusinde and Aureliano Oyarzún (1910-1947)

Abstract This article analyses intellectual production and contributions from the perspective of the postulates of the AustroGerman Historical-Cultural School in the scientific development and the institutional establishment of anthropology inChile. We use discussion of the careers and work of Max Uhle, Martín Gusinde and Aureliano Oyarzún to present a number of elements in order to characterise their contributions to the research work carried out in Chile, and to thesocio-institutional dynamics which enabled scientific anthropology to emerge at the beginning of the 20th century. To attain this object we used a historical approach, from which we entered into more profound analysis of the scientificproduction of these authors. In this way we were able to identify and characterise actors, areas of work and core themes, including anthropological, archaeological and ethnological practice. The research produced various elements permittingdiscussion of certain statements made about anthropology in the early 20th century, among them the homogeneity of these practices, and their crucial contribution to a state policy of national construction.